Canine medicine and surgery - Veterinary Practice
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Canine medicine and surgery

Bone reconstruction following trauma in a dog using a recombinant human protein

John Lewis and others, University of Pennsylvania

A six-year-old German short-haired pointer was referred for treatment of a 5cm defect in the right mandible resulting from a handgun injury nine weeks earlier. Removal of the damaged segment of bone had resulted in malocclusion and further trauma as a consequence of contact between the left mandibular canine tooth and the hard palate mucosa. The right mandible was stabilised with plates on the lateral alveolar margin and along the ventrolateral surface.

A compression-resistant matrix containing collagen, hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate was soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and this was placed in the defect. By four weeks post surgery a callus had formed in the defect and six months later this had remodelled, giving the dog a normal appearance, normal occlusion and excellent function of the jaw.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233 (10): 1,598- 1,604

Evaluation of the effects of diazepam in the treatment of canine anxiety

Meghan Herron and others, University of Pennsylvania

Anxiety disorders in dogs will cause behavioural problems such as urination/defaecation, whining, selfinjury and destructiveness, sometimes severe enough to result in euthanasia. Benzodiazepine drugs like diazepam are often prescribed for this condition and the authors describe the results in 37 cases. In 24% of these dogs the owner reported treatment as “very effective” and 43% said it was “somewhat effective”. However, 11 of 19 owners who stopped treatment did so because of adverse effects and 10 complained of lack of efficacy.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233 (9): 1,420- 1,424.

Morphology of the forelimb bones in labrador dogs with elbow dysplasia

Paula Davidson and others, All Animal Physio, Balwyn, Victoria

Elbow dysplasia is a common developmental defect of labradors. Breeders have claimed that the condition is more common in animals with a short upper brachium. The authors carried out digital calliper measurements of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna in 103 individuals and compared their results with radiological scores derived from International Elbow Working Group recommendations. Surprisingly, they found that in bitches, but not in dogs, those individuals with elbow dysplasia had significantly shorter scapulas.

Australian Veterinary Journal 86 (11): 425-428.

Laser lithotripsy for the treatment of urolithiasis in dogs

David Grant and others, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia

Urolithiasis is a common finding in dogs and may be treated either using surgery or dissolution through a combination of nutritional manipulation and medication. Instead, the authors assess the use of laser lithotripsy in 25 dogs. This was performed endoscopically with a holmium/yttrium/aluminium garnet beam delivered under general anaesthesia using a flexible optical fibre to the surface of the urolith. The procedure was successful in 21 cases, with better and more rapid results in female than in male patients.

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 22 (3): 534-539.

Persistent isolated hypocorticism following brief trilostane treatment in a poodle

Ian Ramsey and others, University of Glasgow

A 12-year-old male miniature poodle with confirmed pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was treated with trilostane but after three doses it began showing signs of isolated hypocortisolism. This condition persisted and progressed for more than three months despite immediate withdrawal of treatment. The dog was given prednisolone and the hypocortisolism signs resolved. Ultrasound showed evidence of adrenal necrosis, in the form of large hyperechoic adrenal cortices which then became small and heteroechoic.

Australian Veterinary Journal 86 (12): 491-495.

Diagnostic significance of serum glycated albumin in diabetic dogs

Toshinori Sako and others, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo

Measurements of serum fructosamine have been used to complement serum glucose tests in diagnosing canine diabetes cases and in monitoring the effects of treatment. However, the reagents necessary to carry out fructosamine tests are no longer commercially available in Japan. The authors examined correlations between the results of serum fructosamine and glycated albumin tests in diabetic dogs. Their findings show that serum glycated albumin is a good diagnostic indicator and a substitute for fructosamine tests in these patients.

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 20 (5): 634-638.

Review of techniques and potential complications of anal sacculectomy

Catriona MacPhail, Colorado State University

Anal sacculectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure in dogs, as the definitive treatment for chronic anal sacculitis. The author reviews the pros and cons of open and closed surgical techniques. The former allows better visualisation of the anal sac lining but with the latter there is less risk of contamination. Among the potential complications of both methods is muscle or nerve damage resulting in faecal incontinence, fistula formation or wound infection. However, the incidence of complications is considered to be low.

Compendium on Continuing Education for Veterinarians 30 (10): 530-535.

Outcome of severe soft tissue infections in 47 dogs

Yekaterina Buriko and others, University of Pennsylvania

The nomenclature associated with soft tissue infections is confusing and inconsistent, making it difficult to compare results from different cases. The authors describe the patient population, microbiological findings, treatment and outcome in 47 severe cases. Overall survival was 46.8%, with non survivors having a significantly lower white blood cell counts and higher lactate, BUN, AAT and bilirubin concentrations. Polymicrobial infections were common, necessitating the use of broad spectrum antimicrobial treatments.

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 18 (6): 608-618.

Intra-operative photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid in prostate cancer

Henry L’Eplattenier and others, University of Utrecht

Photodynamic therapy involves the topical or systemic delivery of a photosensitiser and light to the target area. It has been used in treating a variety of neoplasms and was tested by the authors against prostate carcinoma in six dogs. Median survival time was 41 days which compares unfavourably with reports on the treatment of this condition using other methods. They suggest that these disappointing results may have been due to insufficient light penetration and could be improved on with adjustments to the technique used.

The Veterinary Journal 178 (2): 202-207.

Use of free-dried bovine amniotic membrane to treat canine corneal erosions

Joon Young Kim and others, University of Cambridge

Ulcerative keratitis is a common ocular disease in humans and dogs, causing severe pain and loss of vision. Amniotic membrane grafts have been used in human surgery for some years to provide a basement membrane for re-growth of corneal epithelia. The authors compare a commercial freezedried bovine-derived product with standard therapies in healing lesions in eight dogs. The proportion of the epitheal area which healed in eyes receiving these membrane grafts was higher than those given contact lenses or nictitating membrane flaps.

Veterinary Ophthalmology 12 (1): 36-42.

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