Cell therapy treatment for refractory chronic gingivostomatitis in cats
Marine Febre and others, Vetbiobank SAS, Marcy-l’Etoile, France
Refractory chronic gingivostomatitis is a painful and debilitating condition reported in between 0.7 and 12 percent of cats. It is believed to arise from an inappropriate immune response to oral antigens, including bacteria in the dental plaque and oral viruses. Treatment usually involves the extraction of most or all of the patient’s teeth. The authors describe a preliminary study using a novel therapy involving placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Eight cats that still showed signs of severe inflammation after having most or all of their teeth extracted received a single intravenous infusion containing around 10 million cryopreserved cells. The treatment method appears safe and resulted in a notable clinical improvement in all cats as measured by stomatitis activity index scoring and the behavioural assessments of their owners.
Strategies to improve the home care of dogs with periodontal disease
Evelyn Barbosa and others, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil
Periodontal disease is the most commonly diagnosed oral disease in dogs, occurring in up to 80 percent of dogs over two years old. Regular brushing by the owner is recommended to control the disease-causing bacterial plaque, but many find this difficult and burdensome. The authors review the evidence on the efficacy of alternative strategies to maintain oral health, including biochemical agents (enzymes, gels, food additives, etc) and mechanical treatments (dental chews, biscuits, etc). The study demonstrates that many different treatment options have beneficial effects in preventing periodontal disease, and its findings may guide future research in this area.
Complications following folded flap palatoplasty procedures in brachycephalic dogs
Teng Xiang Khoo and others, Centre for Animal Referral and Emergency, Collingwood, Victoria
Soft palate thickening and elongation are important factors in the development of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Folded flap palatoplasty was introduced in 2008 to treat affected dogs surgically and is reported to improve respiratory function in more than 90 percent of patients. The authors report the results of a series of 25 cases treated using this method. Wound healing complications were identified in nine dogs, consisting of either incisional dehiscence with caudal retraction of the soft palate mucosa or the development of a full thickness defect in the centre of the soft palate. Revision surgery was performed in five dogs, successfully in four of those cases.
Biomechanical properties of two devices for repairing mandibular fractures in cats
Ching Ching Shirley Kot and others, University of California, Davis, USA
Mandibular fractures are commonly associated with car accidents, fights or falls and account for up to 23 percent of all fractures in cats. Repair can be challenging due to the limited surgical access and the lack of a suitable surface area and bone thickness for internal fixation. The authors assessed the biomechanical properties of mandibular repairs using two different plating methods compared to intact bones. The malleable L-miniplates with either locking or non-locking screws were applied to simulated oblique ramus fractures on the mandibles of feline cadavers. Their results show that the two repair methods were feasible, but the resulting constructs were inferior mechanically to intact mandibles.
Arthroscopic treatment of bilateral mandibular condylar cysts in a horse
James Carmalt and Nathalie Reisbig, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
A horse was presented with a history of unpredictable behaviour, and the owner considered the animal dangerous to ride. In addition, its tongue would protrude, and a “clunking” noise could be heard when it chewed. A radiopaque mass had been identified in the right temporomandibular joint at a previous consultation, and despite surgery on the affected joint, these clinical signs persisted. Computed tomography showed the presence of bone cysts in the mandibular condyles and marginal osteophytosis of the discomandibular joints, consistent with osteoarthritis. Debridement of the affected joints and a post-operative injection of autologous protein solution produced a temporary resolution of the clinical signs, but the patient was euthanised after its unpredictable behaviour re-emerged.
Post-mortem findings in a cat with oral metastatic carcinosarcoma
Daniela Malatesta and others, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy
A 15-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair was presented with a history of weight loss and difficulty feeding. An infiltrative and lobulated sublingual mass was apparent on the left mandible. The cat was anaesthetised, and an incisional biopsy produced a diagnosis of oral carcinosarcoma based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings. The cat was euthanised two months later, and necropsy findings confirmed the presence of carcinosarcoma originating from the left sublingual region with metastatic lesions in the mandibular lymph node. The authors note that oral carcinosarcoma is a rare finding in humans and dogs, and this appears to be the first reported case in a cat.
Genomic medicine in the treatment of canine periodontal disease
Nuno Goncalves-Anjo and others, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss in dogs. The disease is known to be a result of microbiological factors; however, there is also increasing evidence that the progress of the disease is influenced by genetic factors. The authors investigated the genetic makeup of dogs with periodontal disease and those with good oral health. They identified polymorphisms in the RANK gene involved in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. The authors suspect these polymorphisms may be associated with an individual’s susceptibility to developing periodontal disease. They suggest that further developments in genetic analysis will help towards the creation of early diagnostic strategies.
Dentigerous cysts due to unerupted premolar and molar teeth in a Chihuahua
Julia Wuerz and others, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
A six-month-old male Chihuahua presented for neutering and the removal of persistent deciduous maxillary canines and dental imaging of unerupted teeth. Two years later, the patient presented again for treatment of mild periodontitis. Dental imaging revealed an unerupted left mandibular first premolar and third molar with associated radiolucency, indicating the presence of dentigerous cysts. Both teeth were surgically extracted, and there was no evidence of pain or swelling at two weeks follow-up. Definitive diagnosis would normally require histopathological analysis of the cyst lining, but this was declined by the owner on financial grounds.