Tumour-associated macrophages as potential prognostic indicators in canine cancer
Shohei Yokota and others, University of Tokyo, Japan
Solid tumours may be infiltrated by a range of different immune cells, and in human medicine, the nature and extent of these cells appear to be associated with clinical outcomes. The authors examined the influence of total macrophages and the CD204+ subset on the biological behaviour of tumours such as canine pulmonary adenocarcinoma and transitional cell carcinomas. They found that CD204+ macrophage levels were high in most solid tumours examined and significantly associated with the risk of metastasis in transitional cell carcinoma cases. High levels of the same cell type were also linked to a shorter overall survival time in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma. This cell type appears to contribute to tumour progression and could prove a useful prognostic marker.
Advances in canine cancer genomics and their potential value in comparative medicine
Cheryl London and others, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts
Pet dogs develop spontaneous cancers at a rate estimated to be five times greater than humans. Canine tumours share many characteristics of human cancers and have therefore been considered potential research models for the diseases affecting their owners. However, progress in those studies has long been hampered by a lack of suitable cellular and molecular reagents for in vitro and in vivo studies and limited information on the genomic aspects of canine oncology. The authors state that those critical gaps in knowledge and resources are rapidly being filled. One major step forward was the creation of the Integrated Canine Data Commons. They examine the likely impact of these developments and review the resources and tools available to integrate comparative studies of diseases affecting humans and dogs.
Association between divisional location and outcomes in canine liver mass resection
Vaughan Moore and others, Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, Australia
The location of a liver mass is known to influence the outcome of surgery due to factors such as the proximity to major blood vessels and consequent risk of intraoperative haemorrhage. The authors examined records from 124 cases of liver tumours in dogs to investigate the associations between the divisional location of the mass and the short-term outcomes. They found that masses were more common in the left division (72 cases) than the central (34) or right (18) divisions. Intraoperative complications were more common during resection of right divisional masses, but there were no significant differences in the frequency of post-operative problems between the different groups.
Changes in diet and supplement administration following cancer diagnoses in dogs
Matthew Kramer and others, University of California, Davis
Anecdotal evidence suggests that dog owners may introduce changes in the pet’s diet after the animal has been diagnosed with oncological disease. However, there are no published reports examining the frequency or nature of these changes. The authors questioned the owners of dogs diagnosed with cancer at a university clinic and received 128 replies. Overall, 54.8 percent of these owners reported changing either the main diet or the nutritional supplements provided to their pet. A significant proportion began feeding their animal a home-made diet and many also started giving joint support products. The authors suggest that veterinary staff should give clients information on the role of good-quality nutrition in pets undergoing treatment for cancer.
Clinical features in cases of feline minor salivary gland adenocarcinoma
Monica Laureano and others, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center of Brevard, Florida
Salivary gland tumours are an unusual finding in feline patients, but they occur more frequently in cats than dogs. The authors describe the clinical features, morbidity and outcomes in four cases of adenocarcinoma of the minor salivary glands in cats aged from 9 to 15 years old. Curative surgery was attempted in three cases and a palliative debulking procedure in the fourth due to extensive soft tissue invasion. Survival times ranged from 210 to 1,730 days. However, all four cats were euthanised due to local recurrence and decreased quality of life. The authors state that salivary gland neoplasia should be considered among the differential diagnoses for feline patients with masses affecting the caudal labial mucosa.
Evaluation of the Misonix bone scalpel in performing craniectomies in dogs
Alexander Piazza and others, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
The Misonix bone scalpel is a device that allows the surgeon to transect hard or crystalline structures while largely sparing any soft tissue that comes into contact with the blade. The authors used this technology to treat multilobular osteochondrosarcomas affecting the skulls of three dogs. This tumour type is fairly rare and usually considered slow-growing but locally invasive. Initial trials using canine cadavers showed that the system is an efficient tool for performing rapid craniectomies although some dural tears and bone discoloration were recorded. In the three clinical cases, complete excision of the tumour was possible, the short-term outcome was good and the long-term outcome was fair to good.
A novel method for measuring tumour perfusion in canine orofacial tumours
Jeremy Mortier and others, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography is a technique for assessing blood flow in the capillary network by scanning a volume of tissue during the intravenous administration of a contrast medium. The technique has shown promise as a prognostic indicator in human patients with head and neck tumours to assess the response to treatment and to detect local recurrence. The authors applied the method in dogs with various orofacial tumours to investigate the perfusion parameters and how these might change following radiotherapy. Their findings indicate that epithelial tumours may have higher blood volume and blood flow than mesenchymal tumours. In three of four dogs that showed a reduction in tumour volume following radiotherapy, there was an increase in blood volume and flow in a repeat scan.
Primary multiple pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in the heart of an adult dog
Olga Szalus-Jordanow and others, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland
Heart tumours are an unusual finding in dogs and cats. Affected animals often show no clinical signs and the mass is often an incidental finding during a routine echocardiographic examination. The authors describe the case of an 11-year-old male crossbreed dog living in a dog shelter. The dog was reported to have been lethargic and inappetent for three days and presented in lateral recumbency. Multiple tumours were apparent on ultrasound examination and the dog was euthanised. The presence of multiple intracardiac tumours in all four chambers was confirmed on post-mortem examination. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesions as rhabdomyosarcoma.