A look through the latest literature: reproduction - Veterinary Practice
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A look through the latest literature: reproduction

Discover what’s new in veterinary genetics and reproduction with our monthly summary of the latest academic publications on this month’s featured subject

Clinical opportunities resulting from a genomic analysis of different canine cancers

Sharadha Sakthikumar and others, Vidium Animal Health, Phoenix, Arizona

Over the past 20 years, our better understanding of the biological processes and individual variability in human cancers has improved patient outcomes. This has often involved detailed analysis of the mutations responsible for oncological changes, resulting in improvements in diagnosis and more effective treatment stratification. A team of 31 authors from multiple centres describe the development and application of novel gene sequencing technologies to examine 828 tumours from 813 dogs, involving 53 different cancer types. They report that 90 percent of the cases examined had mutations with potential implications in creating new techniques for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of canine cancers. In what they believe to be the first study of its kind in dogs, their findings reveal the clinical potential of applying mutation-based biomarkers in veterinary oncology.

Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 22, 30-41

Mycoplasma infections have no influence on semen quality in male dogs

Kinga Domrazek and others, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland

Mycoplasma spp. are simple bacterial organisms that colonise members of all vertebrate groups. They may be found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of dogs and are associated with disease conditions such as pneumonia and colitis. Mycoplasma are also commonly isolated from the reproductive tract of dogs, where their impact on the health of the host is unclear. The authors took semen samples from 78 male dogs, 59 percent of which were Mycoplasma positive. In 72.3 percent of the Mycoplasma-positive dogs, multiple bacterial species were present. Six dogs had azoospermic ejaculate. Although Mycoplasma spp. were present in the azoospermic dogs, the authors suggest that this was not the cause of their infertility. Instead, the bacteria appear to be part of the normal microbiota of the canine prepuce.

Theriogenology, 219, 86-93

Comparison of two tissue dissection techniques in laparoscopic ovariectomy

Floor Driessen and others, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Advanced tissue sealers have been essential in the development of minimally invasive surgery, improving surgical performance and reducing both complications and duration of procedures. The authors compared the performance of two devices for tissue dissection and blood vessel sealing in canine laparoscopic ovariectomy procedures. These were the Ligasure Maryland Sealer/Divider (LMSD) and the more recently introduced Articulating Enseal G2 (AENG2) device; both were used on alternate sides in 21 dogs. Excision times were longer with the AENG2 device. Minor haemorrhage from incomplete sealing occurred in two cases that used the AENG2 device and once using the LMSD. Smoke production and thermal tissue damage scores were similar when using the two techniques.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 65, 51

Representations of dystocia in horses and cattle in historical artworks

Jorgen Steen Agerholm and others, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Gerhard Sand was the first professor of obstetrics at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Copenhagen, teaching students there from 1887 to 1921. Gerhard had a huge impact on the teaching of veterinary obstetrics in Denmark. He was also an accomplished artist, producing a series of illustrations of different causes of dystocia in horses and cattle. He intended to include these illustrations in a handbook of obstetrics, but due to illness and his untimely death, the project was never completed. The authors have gathered many of these images together for publication to honour the late scientist and make them available again for teaching veterinary obstetrics.

Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 66, 12

Computed tomography findings in a case of canine ovarian teratoma

Alexandra Radtke and others, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Ovarian cancer is a fairly rare finding in dogs, accounting for around 1 percent of tumours in female dogs. Ovarian teratomas are even less common, accounting for just 2 percent of all ovarian neoplasms in this species. The authors describe a case of teratoma in a two-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever that presented with progressive abdominal distension. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) identified a mixed fat to soft tissue attenuating mass with a complex internal mineralised matrix. Histological examination showed the mass was a left ovarian teratoma with diffuse endometrial hyperplasia and foetal implantation. Surgical excision of the tumour produced a good outcome, with the dog surviving for another two years before developing a primary cranial mediastinal neuroendocrine carcinoma.

Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, 65, 45-48

Gene expression in the gonads of domestic cats

Phakjira Sanguansook and others, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Free-roaming female domestic cats belong to a prolific species that can have several litters of kittens a year. Population management may be necessary for zoonotic disease control to limit predation of wildlife and to improve feline welfare. The authors investigated the IZUMO1 sperm protein and the JUNO oocyte receptor genes that have been studied in other mammalian species as potential targets for non-surgical contraceptive strategies in feral cats. They analysed the coding sequence for these two genes in cats and their expression in different visceral tissues. They demonstrated the presence of the IZUMO1 and JUNO genes in the testes and ovaries of cats, respectively.

Theriogenology, 220, 70-76

Haematology and serum biochemistry findings in canine pyometra diagnosis

Anil Demeli and James Meyer, General Directorate of Food and Control, Ankara, Turkey

Pyometra is a common life-threatening condition in older intact female dogs. It is normally identified through clinical examination, but radiography and laboratory tests are often employed to confirm the diagnosis. The authors conducted a systematic review of the haematological and serum chemistry findings in 44 published studies on pyometra cases. They found that the parameters that were consistently raised in dogs with pyometra compared with healthy controls included total white blood cell counts, monocytes, blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase. The parameters that were consistently lower included total red cell counts, haemoglobin and albumin. All other parameters examined showed variable results.

Journal of Small Animal Practice, 64, 543-551

T-cell lymphoma infiltrating the uterus and ovaries of a Golden Retriever

Jaeyeop Jo and others, Chungbuk National University, South Korea

A one-and-a-half-year-old intact female Golden Retriever was referred with a three-week history of melena and hyporexia. The patient was also found to have fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, pale mucous membranes and a purulent vaginal discharge. Radiology showed a large mass in the mid-abdomen, while ultrasound showed gas and fluid in the uterine horns. An exploratory laparoscopy was carried out for a suspected pyometra. Histopathological examination of the ovaries and uterus revealed neoplastic infiltration of large round cells with strong immunoreactivity for the CD-3 antigen, indicating T-cell lymphoma. The authors suggest that lymphoma should be included among the differential diagnoses in patients with atypical signs of pyometra.

Irish Veterinary Journal, 76, 23

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